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LAN - Local Area Network

A data communications network which is geographically limited (typically to a 1 km radius) allowing easy interconnection of devices.
Ethernet is an example of a standard LAN.
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French based Notified Body

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Light Emitting Diode

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LEL - Lower Explosive Limit

Below the LEL a mixture of substance and air lacks sufficient fuel (substance) to burn.

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Local Equipment Room

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Heating Value is defined as the amount of energy released when a fuel is burned completely in a steady-flow process and the products are returned to the state of the reactants.
The heating value is dependent on the phase of water/steam in the combustion products. When H2O is in vapor form the heating value is called LHV (Lower Heating Value).
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The closeness to which a curve approximates a straight line or the deviation of an instrument's response from a straight line.

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LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas

Natural gas (mainly methane) refrigerated to reach liquid phase suitable for transportation in specialised vessels or by pipeline.

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Letter of Authorisation

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Leading Oil & Gas Industry Competitiveness
An industry funded organisation that works with companies throughout the O&G industry to stimulate collaboration and improve competitiveness.
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Letter of Intent

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Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations
UK regulations that aim to reduce risks to people’s health and safety from lifting equipment provided for use at work.
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Spanish based Notified Body

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LOPA - Layers of Protection Analysis

A semi-quantitative risk analysis technique.
LOPA results are intended to be conservative (overestimating the risk) and usually adequate to understand the required safety integrity level.
Further Reading
SIL Ratings Toolbox Page


Line of Sight
Typically used with reference to telecommunication devices.
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LP - Low Pressure

Often used with reference to a utility or vent line e.g. LP air supply.

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LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Butane and propane mixture separated from well fluid stream. LPG can be transported under pressure in refrigerated vessels

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LSA Scale

Low Specific Activity scale found adhering to pipe and equipment internals is mainly due to radium-226 produced from the decay of naturally occurring uranium-238.
Can present decommissioning problems.
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LTI - Lost Time Incident

Accident resulting in personnel not being able to work as a result of their injury is called an LTI

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Licence to Operate

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Lump Sum

Contract term generally denoting fixed price covering all services provided.

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Logging While Drilling

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